Essays

In this section, users can read short essays by members of the COTCA Team about specific images or collections which are included in the COTCA Digital Archive. Some essays are also built around general events, people, or institutions which correspond with specific themes and items appearing in the case studies.

The Malayan Emergency: Bibliography

This bibliography provides details about publications in English relating to all aspects of the Malayan Emergency, as well as details about important archival and library collections. Historiographical Overviews Hack, Karl. “‘Iron Claws on Malaya’: The Historiography of the Malayan Emergency”, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 30, no. 1 (March 1999): 99-125. Keo, Bernard Z. “A Small, Distant War? Historiographical Reflections on the Malayan Emergency”, History Compass 17, no. 3 (March 2019). Books Arditti, Roger C. Counterinsurgency Intelligence and the Emergency in Malaya. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019. Barber, Noel. The War of the Runnings Dogs: How Malaya Defeated the Communist Guerrillas 1948-1960. London: Cassell, 1971. Bartlett, Vernon. Report from Malaya. London: D. Verschoyle, 1955. Bayly, Christopher, and Tim Harper. Forgotten Wars: The End of Britain’s Asian Empire. London: Allen Lane, 2007. Belogurova, Anna. The Nanyang Revolution: The Comintern and Chinese Networks in Southeast Asia, 1890-1957. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019. Carruthers, Susan L. Winning Hearts and Minds: British Governments, the Media, and Colonial Counter-Insurgency, 1944-1960. London: Leicester University Press, 1995. Cheah Boon Kheng. Masked Comrades: A Study of the Communist United Front in Malaya, 1945-1948. Singapore: Times, 1979. Cheah Boon Kheng. Malaysia: The Making of a Nation. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002. Chin, C.C., and Karl Hack, eds. Dialogues with Chin Peng: New Light on the Malayan Communist Party. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2004. Chin Peng. My Side of History. Singapore: Media Masters, 2003. Cloake, John. Templer: Tiger of Malaya. London: Harrap, 1985. Clutterbuck, Richard L. The Long Long War: The Emergency in Malaya 1948-1960 (London: Cassell, 1967. Clutterbuck, Richard L. Riot and Revolution in Singapore and Malaya, 1945-1963. London: Faber, 1973. Coates, John. Suppressing Insurgency: An Analysis of the Malayan Emergency. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993. Comber, Leon. Malaya’s Secret Police 1945-60: The Role of the Special Branch in the Malayan Emergency. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2008. Comber, Leon. Templer and the Road to Malayan Independence: The Man and His Time. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2015. Cormac, Rory. Confronting the Colonies: British Intelligence and Counterinsurgency. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. Corry, W.C.S. A General Survey of New Villages: Report to His Excellency Sir Donald MacGillivray, High Commissioner of the Federation of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur: Government Printing Press, 1954. Fakeh, Shamsiah. The Memoirs of Fakeh, Shamsiah: From AWAS to 10th Regiment. Kuala Lumpur: Strategic Information and Research Development Centre, 2009. Francis Kok Wah Loh. Beyond the Tin Mines: Coolies, Squatters, and New Villagers in the Kinta Valley, Malaysia 1880–1980. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. Giukon, Asoka. A People’s History of Malaya: The New Emergency. Oldham: Bersatu, 1980. Hack, Karl. Defence and Decolonisation in Southeast Asia: Britain, Malaya and Singapore 1941-68. Richmond: Curzon Press, 2001. Hale, Christopher. Massacre in Malaya: Exposing Britain’s My Lai. Stroud: The History Press, 2013. Hanrahan, Gene Z. The Communist Struggle in Malaya. New York: Institute of Pacific Relations, 1954. Hara, Fujio. Malayan Chinese and China: Conversion in Identity Consciousness, 1945-1957. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies, 1997. Harper, T. N. The End of Empire and the Making of Malaya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Heng Pek Koon. Chinese Politics in Malaysia: A History of the Malaysian Chinese Association. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1988. Jackson, Robert. The Malayan Emergency: The Commonwealth’s Wars 1948-1966. London: Routledge, 1991. Lee Ting Hui, The Open United Front: The Communist Struggle in Singapore, 1954-1966. Singapore: South Seas Society, 1996. Leow, Rachel. Taming Babel: Language in the Making of Malaysia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016. Lowe, Peter. Contending with Nationalism and Communism: British Policy Towards Southeast Asia, 1945-65. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Markandan, Paul. The Problem of New Villages in Malaya. Singapore: D. Moore, 1954. Miller, Harry. The Communist Menace in Malaya. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1954. Miller, Harry. Jungle War in Malaya: The Campaign Against Communism 1948-60. London: Arthur Barker, 1972. Nagl, John A. Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002. Nonini, Donald M. “Getting By”: Class and State Formation among Chinese in Malaysia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2015. Nyce, Ray. New Villages in Malaya: A Community Study. Singapore: Malaysian Sociological Research Institute Ltd., 1973. Parkinson, C. Northcote. Templer in Malaya. Singapore: Donald Moore, 1954. Purcell, Victor. Malaya: Communist or Free. London: Gollancz, 1954. Pye, Lucian W. Guerrilla Communism in Malaya: Its Social and Political Meaning. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1956. Raj, Dato’ J.J. The War Years and After: A Personal Account of Historical Relevance. Petaling Jaya: Pelanduk Publications, 1995. Ramakrishna, Kumar. Emergency Propaganda: The Winning of Malayan Hearts and Minds 1948–1958. Richmond: Curzon Press, 2002. Rayner, Leonard. Emergency Years (Malaya 1951-1954). Singapore: Heinemann Asia, 1991. Robinson, J.B. Perry. Transformation in Malaya. London: Secker and Warburg, 1956. Short, Anthony. The Communist Insurrection in Malaya 1948-1960. London: Frederick Muller, 1975. Singapore Art Museum. From Words to Pictures: Art During the Emergency. Singapore: Singapore Art Museum, 2007. Stockwell, A.J. British Documents on End of Empire: Malaya, 1942-1957. Three Volumes, London, 1995. Strauch, Judith. Chinese Village Politics in the Malaysian State. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981. Stubbs, Richard. Counter-Insurgency and the Economic Factor: The Impact of the Korean War Prices Boom on the Malayan Emergency. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1974. Stubbs, Richard. Hearts and Minds in Guerrilla Warfare: The Malayan Emergency 1948-1960. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989. Sunderland, Riley. Army Operations in Malaya, 1947-1960. Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation, 1964. Sutton, Alex. The Political Economy of Imperial Relations: Britain, the Sterling Area, and Malaya 1945-1960. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied. Radicals: Resistance and Protest in Colonial Malaya. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2015. Thompson, Sir Robert. Defeating Communist Insurgency: The Lessons of Malaya and Vietnam. New York: Praeger, 1966. Wang Gungwu. Community and Nation: Essays on Southeast Asia and the Chinese. Singapore: Heinemann, 1981. White, Nicholas J. Business, Government and the End of Empire. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Yao, Souchou. The Malayan Emergency: Essays on a Small, Distant War. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2016.   Articles Ang, Timothy. “Lessons from the British: Counterinsurgency Strategies Applied in Malaya, Kenya and Cyprus”. Pointer: Journal of the Singapore Armed Forces 39, no. 2 (2013): 49-57. Arditti, Roger and Philip H.J. Davies. “Rethinking the Rise and Fall of the Malayan Security Service, 1946-48”.  Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 43, no. 2 (2015): 292-316. Bennett, Huw. “‘A Very Salutary Effect’: The Counter-Terror Strategy in the Early Malayan Emergency, June 1948 to December 1949”. Journal of Strategic Studies 32, no. 3 (2009): 415-444. Carruthers, Susan. “Two Faces of 1950s Terrorism: The Film Presentation of Mau Mau and the Malayan Emergency”. Small Wars & Insurgencies 6, no. 1 (1995): 17-43. Chiu Man Yin. “Violence and Comedy: The Malayan Emergency in the Malaysian Novels of Lloyd Fernando and Anthony Burgess”. Journal of Literature and Trauma Studies 2, no. 1-2 (Spring/Fall 2013): 87-91. Comber, Leon. “‘The Weather… Has Been Horrible’: Malayan Communist Communications during ‘the Emergency’ (1948-60)”. Asian Studies Review 19, no. 2 (1995): 37-57. Deery, Phillip. “The Terminology of Terrorism: Malaya, 1948-52”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34, no. 2 (June 2003): 231-247. Deery, Phillip. “Malaya, 1948: Britain’s Asian Cold War?” Journal of Cold War Studies 9, no. 1 (Winter 2007): 29-54. Dixon, Paul. “‘Hearts and Minds’? British Counter-Insurgency from Malaya to Iraq”. Journal of Strategic Studies 32, no. 3 (2009): 353-381. Fernando, Joseph M. “British Colonial Policy and the Development of Political Parties in Malaya, 1945-1957: Taming the Shrew?” Sejarah 16, no. 16 (2008): 105-121. Gregorian, Raffi. “‘Jungle Bashing’ in Malaya: Towards a Formal Tactical Doctrine”. Small Wars & Insurgencies 5, no. 3 (Winter 1994): 338-359. Hack, Karl. “British Intelligence and Counter-Insurgency in the Era of Decolonisation: The Example of Malaya”. Intelligence and National Security 14, no. 2 (1999): 124-155. Hack, Karl, “The Malayan Emergency as Counter-Insurgency Paradigm”. Journal of Strategic Studies 32, no. 3 (2009): 383-414. Hack, Karl. “Negotiating with the Malayan Communist Party, 1948-89”. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 39, no. 4 (2011): 607-632. Hack, Karl. “‘Everyone Lived in Fear’: Malaya and the ‘British Way in Counter-Insurgency’”. Small Wars & Insurgencies 23, no. 4-5 (2012): 671-699. Hack, Karl. “Detention, Deportation and Resettlement: British Counterinsurgency and Malaya’s Rural Chinese, 1948-60”. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 43, no. 4 (2015): 611-640. Hack, Karl. “‘Devils That Suck the Blood Out of the Malayan People’: The Case for Post-Revisionist Analysis of Counter-Insurgency Violence”. War in History 25, no. 2 (2018): 611-640. Harper, T.N. “The Politics of the Forest in Colonial Malaya”. Modern Asian Studies 31, no. 1 (February 1997): 1-29. Hee, Wai Siam. “Anti-Communist Moving Images and Cold War Ideology: On the Malayan Film Unit”. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 18, no. 4 (2017): 593-609. Ho, Kee Chye. “Returning to Malaya: The Strategy and Significance of the Communist Party of Malaya’s Southward Advance”. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 16, no. 1 (2015): 56-66. Johnstone, Michael. “The Evolution of Squatter Settlements in Peninsular Malaysian Cities”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 12, no. 2 (September 1981): 364-380. Katagiri, Nori. “Winning Hearts and Minds to Lose Control: Exploring Various Consequences of Popular Support in Counterinsurgency Missions”. Small Wars & Insurgencies 22, no. 1 (2011): 170-195. Ladwig, Walter C. “Managing Counterinsurgency: Lessons from Malaya”. Military Review 87, no. 3 (2007): 56-67. Lee Boon Thong. “Petaling Jaya: The Early Development and Growth of Malaysia’s First New Town”. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 79, no. 2 (2006): 1-22. Lee Kam Hing. “A Neglected Story: Christian Missionaries, Chinese New Villagers, and Communists in the Battle for the ‘Hearts and Minds’ in Malaya, 1948-1960”. Modern Asian Studies 47, no. 6 (2013): 1977-2006. Low Choo Chin, “The Repatriation of the Chinese as a Counter-Insurgency Policy during the Malayan Emergency”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 45, no. 3 (October 2014): 363-392. Low Choo Chin, “Immigration Control during the Malayan Emergency: Borders, Belonging and Citizenship, 1948-1960”. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 89, no. 1 (June 2016): 35-59. Kratoska, Paul H. “The Peripatetic Peasant and Land Tenure in British Malaya”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 16, no. 1 (March 1985): 16–45. McGregor, Katharine. “Cold War Scripts: Comparing Remembrance of the Malayan Emergency and the 1965 Violence in Indonesia”. South East Asia Research 24, no. 2 (2016): 242-260. Musa, Mahani. “Women in the Malayan Communist Party, 1942-89”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 44, no. 2 (June 2013): 226-249. Nonini, Donald M. “‘At That Time We Were Intimidated On All Sides’: Residues of the Malayan Emergency as a Conjunctural Episode of Dispossession”. Critical Asian Studies 47, no. 3 (2015): 337-358. Opper, Marc. “Gene Z. Hanrahan: Elusive Historian of the Malayan Emergency”. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 90, no. 2 (December 2017): 71-95. Paget, Steven. “‘A Sledgehammer to Crack a Nut’? Naval Gunfire Support During the Malayan Emergency”. Small Wars & Insurgencies 28, no. 2 (2017): 361-384. Ramakrishna, Kumar. “‘Transmogrifying’ Malaya: The Impact of Sir Gerald Templer (1952-1954)”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 32, no. 1 (February 2001): 79-92. Ramakrishna, Kumar. “‘Telling the Simple People the Truth’: The Role of Strategic Propaganda in the Malayan Emergency”. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 75, no. 1 (2002): 49-68. Ramakrishna, Kumar. “‘The Southeast Asian Approach’ to Counter-Terrorism: Learning from Indonesia and Malaya”. Journal of Conflict Studies 25, no. 1 (2005): 27-47. Sandhu, Kernial Singh. “The Saga of the ‘Squatter’ in Malaya: A Preliminary Survey of the Causes, Characteristics and Consequences of the Resettlement of Rural Dwellers during the Emergency between 1948 and 1960”. Journal of Southeast Asian History 5, no. 1 (March 1964): 143-177. Scheipers, Sibylle. “The Use of Camps in Colonial Warfare”. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 43, no. 4 (2015): 678–698. Sendut, Hamzah, “The Resettlement Villages in Malaya”. Geography 47, no. 1 (January 1962): 41-46. Sioh, Maureen. “Authorizing the Malaysian Rainforest: Configuring Space, Contesting Claims and Conquering Imaginaries”. Ecumene 5, no. 2 (April 1998): 144-166. Sioh, Maureen. “An Ecology of Postcoloniality: Disciplining Nature and Society in Malaya, 1948–1957”. Journal of Historical Geography 30, no. 4 (October 2004) 729-746. Sinclair, Georgina. “‘The Sharp End of the Intelligence Machine’: The Rise of the Malayan Special Police Branch 1948-1955”. Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 4 (2011): 460-477. Smith, Simon. “General Templer and Counter-Insurgency in Malaya: Hearts and Minds, Intelligence, and Propaganda”. Intelligence and National Security 16, no. 3 (2001): 60-78. Stockwell, A.J. “British Imperial Policy and Decolonization in Malaya, 1942-52”. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 13, no. 1 (1984): 68-87. Stockwell, A.J. “Insurgency and Decolonisation During the Malayan Emergency”. Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 25, no. 1 (1987): 71-81. Stockwell, A.J. “ ‘A Widespread and Long-Concocted Plot to Overthrow Government in Malaya’? The Origins of the Malayan Emergency”. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 21, no. 3 (1993): 66-88. Stockwell, A.J. “Malaysia: The Making of a Neo-Colony?” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 26, no. 2 (1998): 138–156. Strauch, Judith. “Chinese New Villages of the Malayan Emergency, A Generation Later: A Case Study”. Contemporary Southeast Asia 3, no. 2 (September 1981): 126-139. Stubbs, Richard. “The United Malays National Organization, the Malayan Chinese Association, and the Early Years of the Malayan Emergency, 1948-1955”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 10, no. 1 (1979): 77-88. Tan Teng Phee, “‘Like a Concentration Camp, Iah’: Chinese Grassroots Experience of the Emergency and New Villages in British Colonial Malaya.” Chinese Southern Diaspora Studies 3 (2009): 216-228. Tan Teng Phee. “Oral History and People’s Memory of the Malayan Emergency (1948-60): The Case of Pulai”. Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 27, no. 1 (April 2012): 84-119. Taylor, Jeremy E. “‘Not a Particularly Happy Expression’: ‘Malayanization’ and the China Threat in Britain’s Late-Colonial Southeast Asian Territories”. Journal of Asian Studies 78, no. 4 (November 2019): 789–808. Tilman, Robert O. “The Non-Lessons of the Malayan Emergency”. Asian Survey 6, no 8 (1966): 407-419. Ucko, David H. “Countering Insurgents Through Distributed Operations: Insights from Malaya 1948-1960”. Journal of Strategic Studies 30, no. 1 (February 2007): 47-72. Ucko, David H. “The Malayan Emergency: The Legacy and Relevance of a Counter-Insurgency Success Story”. Defence Studies 10, no. 1-2 (2010): 13-39. Ucko, David H. “Counterinsurgency as Armed Reform: The Political History of the Malayan Emergency”. Journal of Strategic Studies 42, no. 3-4 (2019): 448-479. Voon Phin Keong and Khoo Soo Hock. “The New Villages in Peninsular Malaysia: A Socio-Economic Perspective”. Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography 14 (December 1986): 36-55. Weiss, Meredith L. “Legacies of the Cold War in Malaysia: Anything but Communism”. Journal of Contemporary Asia 50, no. 4 (2020): 511-529. White, Nicholas J. “Government and business divided: Malaya 1945–57”. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 22, no. 2 (1994): 251–274. White, Nicholas J. “Capitalism and Counter-Insurgency? Business and Government in the Malayan Emergency, 1948-57”. Modern Asian Studies 32, no. 1 (February 1998): 149-177. Zhou Hau Liew. “Ecological narratives of forced resettlement in Cold War Malaya”. Critical Asian Studies 52, no. 2 (2020): 286–303. Book Chapters Barrett, Colby E. “War-Stopping and Peacemaking During the Malayan Emergency (1948-1960)”. In Stopping Wars and Making Peace: Studies in International Intervention, eds. Kristen Eichensehr and W. Michael Reisman, 121-146. Leiden: Brill, 2009. Belogurova, Anna. “The Malayan Communist Party and the Malayan Chinese Association: Internationalism and Nationalism in Chinese Overseas Political Participation, c. 1920-1960”. In Decolonization and the Cold War: Negotiating Independence, eds. Leslie James and Elisabeth Leake, 125-144. London: Bloomsbury, 2015. Bloom, Peter J. “The Language of Counterinsurgency in Malaya: Dialectical Soundscapes of Salvage and Warfare”. In Colonial Documentary Film in South and South-East Asia, eds. Ian Aitken and Camille Deprez, 63-79. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2017. Caldwell, Malcolm. “From ‘Emergency’ to ‘Independence’, 1948–57”. In Malaya: The Making of a Neo–Colony, eds. Mohamed Amin and Malcolm Caldwell, 216-265. Nottingham: Spokesman Books, 1977. Erwin, Lee. “Britain’s Small Wars: Domesticating ‘Emergency’”. In The Edinburgh Companion to Twentieth-Century British and American War Literature, eds. Adam Piette and Mark Rawlinson, 81-89. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012. Hack, Karl. “‘Screwing Down the People’: The Malayan Emergency, Decolonisation and Ethnicity”. In Imperial Policy and SE Asian Nationalism: 1930-1957, eds. Hans Antlov and Stein Tonnesson, 83-109. London: Curzon Press, 1995. Hack, Karl. “‘Between Two Terrors: People’s History and the Malayan Emergency”. In A People’s History of Insurgency, ed. Hannah Gurman. New York: Free Press, 2013. Hor, Michael. “Law and Terror: Singapore Stories and Malaysian Dilemmas”. In Global Anti-Terrorism Law and Policy, eds. Victor V. Ramraj, Michael Hor, and Kent Roach, 273-294. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Khoo, Gaik Cheng. “Filling in the Gaps of History: Independent Documentaries Re-Present the Malayan Left”. In Cultures at War: The Cold War and Cultural Expression in Southeast Asia, eds. Tony Day and Maya H.T. Liem, 247-264. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program, 2010. Leong Kar Yen, “Memory, Trauma, and Nation: Contestation over the Batang Kali Massacre in Malaysia”. In Oral History in Southeast Asia: Memories and Fragments, eds. Kah Seng Loh, Stephen Dobbs, and Ernest Koh, 119-136. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Maguire, Thomas J. “Interrogation and ‘Psychological Intelligence’: The Construction of Propaganda during the Malayan Emergency, 1948-1958”. In Interrogation in War and Conflict: A Comparative and Interdisciplinary Analysis, eds. Christopher Andrew and Simona Tobia. Abingdon: Routledge, 2012. Marston, Daniel. “Lost and Found in the Jungle: The Indian and British Army Jungle Warfare Doctrines for Burma, 1943-5, and the Malayan Emergency, 1948-1960”. In Big Wars and Small Wars: The British Army and Lessons of War in the Twentieth Century, ed. Hew Strachan. London: Routledge, 2006. Muthalib, Hassan. “The End of Empire: The Films of the Malayan Film Unit in 1950s British Malaya”. In Film and the End of Empire, eds. Lee Grieveson and Colin MacCabe, 177-196. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Ng, Jason Sze Chieh. “Nostalgia and Memory: Remembering the Malayan Communist Revolution in the Online Age”. In The Asia-Pacific in the Age of Transnational Mobility: The Search for Community and Identity on and through Social Media, ed. Catherine Gomes, 169-196. London: Anthem Press, 2016. Ramraj, Victor V. “The Emergency Powers Paradox”. In Emergency Powers in Asia: Exploring the Limits of Legality, eds. Victor V. Ramraj and Arun K. Thiruvengadam, 21-55. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Stockwell, A.J. “Policing During the Malayan Emergency”. In Policing and Decolonisation, eds. David Anderson and David Killingray, 105-126. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992. Zakaria Haji Ahmad and K.S. Sandhu. “The Malayan Emergency: Event Writ Large”. In Melaka: The Transformation of a Malay Capital, c. 1400-1980, eds. Kernial Singh Sandhu and Paul Wheatley. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1983. Works of Fiction Boyd Anderson, The Heart Radical (2014) Anthony Burgess, Time for a Tiger (1956) Anthony Burgess, The Enemy in the Blanket (1958) Anthony Burgess, Beds in the East (1959) Chin Kee Onn, The Grand Illusion (1961) Lloyd Fernando, Scorpion Child (1976) Han Suyin, And the Rain My Drink (1956) William Tham Wai Liang, The Last Days (2020) Archives Malaysia: 1. Arkib Negara Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur Arkib Negara Malaysia is the most comprehensive repository for archival material related to the Malayan Emergency. The archive includes federal records from the British colonial government in Malaya, local and state records, newspapers and other periodicals, as well as a selection of private papers. The archive houses materials in a variety of languages, including English, Malay, and Chinese. A selection of materials that are keyword searchable are now available digitally via the Arkib Negara Malaysia website. United Kingdom: 1. British Film Institute, London The British Film Institute (BFI) holds a variety of original films and newsreels related to the Malayan Emergency, particularly those produced by the Malayan Film Unit. These items are held on site in London, although many are also available online. 2. British Library, London The British Library is home to the largest collection of English-language secondary materials related to the Malayan Emergency. The British Library also holds the papers of the British Association of Malaysia and Singapore, along with a variety of newspapers, trade journals, directories, and magazines focused on Malaya during the Emergency period. 3. Cambridge University Library, Cambridge Cambridge University holds the Royal Commonwealth Society Library collection, which includes the British Association of Malaya papers as well as the personal papers of a number of colonial officials who served in Malaya, such as Sir George Maxwell. 4. Durham University Library, Special Collections, Durham Durham University Library holds the papers of Malcolm MacDonald, who served as the Commissioner-General for the UK in Southeast Asia between 1948 and 1955. 5. Imperial War Museum, London This museum holds a variety of archival materials related to the Malayan Emergency, including the personal papers of a number of British officers who served in Malaya, periodicals, as well as a large collection of material culture and ephemera from the conflict. In addition, the IWM holds one of the largest collections of photography from the Emergency, some of which is available digitally online. 6. King’s College London, Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, London The Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives holds the personal papers and photographs of a number of former British officials and police officers who served in Malaya during the Emergency. The most comprehensive of these papers are those of Major General Dennis Edmund Blaquière Talbot, which contains maps, training materials, and correspondence related to the Emergency. 7. London Metropolitan Archives, London This archive holds the papers of a number of mining and rubber companies that operated in Malaya during the Emergency period, as well as the archives of trade groups such as the British Association of Straits Merchants. 8. The National Archives, London Along with Arkib Negara Malaysia, the National Archives of the United Kingdom is home to the largest and most significant collection of archival materials related to the Malayan Emergency. Records relating to the Emergency can be located in the papers of the Colonial Office, the War Office, the Foreign Office, the Cabinet, and the recently released Foreign and Commonwealth Office records, among others. The archives also hold a variety of maps from the Emergency period, as well as government gazettes at the state and federal level. 9. National Army Museum, Templer Study Centre and Archive, London The National Army Museum, which houses a reading room named after Sir Gerald Templer, contains the records of a number of former British officials and civil servants who served during the Malayan Emergency. The most significant of these papers are those of Sir Rob Lockhart, who served as Director of Operations during the Malayan Emergency between 1951 and 1952. 10. Oxford University, Rhodes House, Oxford Oxford University holds the personal papers of a number of important civil servants and British officials who served in Malaya during the Emergency. This includes Sir William Goode, Sir Ralph Hone, and Arthur Young, among others. 11. School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) Library, Special Collections, London In addition to the fact that the SOAS library houses a great number of secondary materials related to Malaya and the Emergency, the special collections department also holds British Military Administration (Malaya) press summaries as well as company records from a number of rubber and mining firms that operated in Malaya during the Emergency period. Singapore: 1. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), Yusof Ishak Institute, Singapore The ISEAS holds a number of important archival collections related to the Malayan Emergency, most significantly the papers of the businessman and first President of the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA), Tan Cheng Lock. 2. Singapore National Archives, Singapore The Singapore National Archives holds a variety of archival materials related to the Malayan Emergency, including papers from the British Military Administration (BMA), the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the British Public Relations Office. In addition, the Singapore National Archives holds cartographic materials from the Emergency period, as well as a significant collection of oral histories about the conflict, much of which is available digitally online. Australia: 1. Australian War Memorial, Canberra The Australian War Memorial contains a number of archival records related to the Emergency. This includes oral histories from Australian officers who served in Malaya and a large collection of photographs from the Emergency period. Some of this material available digitally online. 2. National Archives of Australia, Canberra The National Archives of Australia holds a variety of records related to the Emergency, particularly those concerning Australian and other commonwealth officers who served in the conflict. United States of America: 1. Hoover Institution Library and Archives, Stanford University The Hoover Institution holds a number of archival records related to the Emergency, including personal papers of British officers who served in the region along with cultural materials related to the Malaysian Chinese Association and Malayan Communist Party. 2. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries The UWM holds the American Geographical Society Library (AGSL), which contains a large collection of photographs from the Malayan Emergency. The most important such collection is from the photographer Harrison Forman, which is available online.

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The Malayan Emergency: Digital Map

Introduction Spaces of the Malayan Emergency is a digital map created as part of the ERC-funded COTCA Project. It is an interactive map of British Malaya in the 1950s, and is the first such map to ever be compiled using data related to the spatial dynamics of the Emergency and its related resettlement policies. The map is designed to highlight the variety of spatial and cartographic features that were hallmarks of the Emergency period in Malaya, including White and Black Areas, New Villages, Regrouping Areas and Detention Camps. Each layer of the map includes clickable data points that contain information about each spatial feature, including population figures, village class types and the source materials that list each location. In its totality, the map provides an approximation of how Malaya’s spatial environment was transformed under British colonial rule during the Malayan Emergency, and the ways in which the geography of Malaya was reshaped by British policies during this period. The data for this map was gathered from archives in Malaysia, the United Kingdom and elsewhere, as well as from a wide range of published secondary historical materials. We have made the geodata and map layers for this project publicly available. Users can access the data files by clicking on the red “View Map” button below. View map The map was generated using Mapbox. Dr David Baillargeon is the lead organiser, researcher and “map maker” for this phase of the COTCA Project; his work with the data provided in this map will appear in an article entitled “Spaces of Occupation: Colonial Enclosure and Confinement in British Malaya”, forthcoming in the Journal of Historical Geography. Spatial Categories The spaces that are covered in this digital map include the following: 1. Black Areas / White Areas Black Areas and White Areas were created in September 1953 under the direction of Sir Gerald Templer. Black Areas, which on the digital map are symbolised using a single polygon feature, were areas in Malaya that represented high-risk environments for anti-colonial “terrorist” activity. These spatial zones were subject to a variety of repressive government policies, including but not limited to curfews, food restrictions and travel bans. White Areas, however, existed in opposition to Black Areas. While the denotation of a “White” area meant the relaxing of some repressive restrictions enacted under the Emergency orders – mainly curfews and food controls – it was also meant to symbolise to the public the benefits of resisting communism and working closely with the colonial authorities. With time, however, the government expanded the programme, pronouncing large areas across Malaya “White” in an effort to instill hope for Malaya’s population. Such declarations were accompanied by the publication of a map in local periodicals and government gazettes that included the precise contours of the area in question, as well as literature about the new “White” area regulations, written in both Chinese and Malay. While information about White and Black Areas can be found in a variety of locations, the specific details of the Black Areas polygon in the digital map is copied from data found at The National Archives (London), Colonial Office files, CO 1030/1, Emergency Regulations: Declaration of “White Areas”. 2. New Villages The British colonial government in Malaya created New Villages to relocate the colony’s large rural ethnic Chinese population into more concentrated and governable spaces. The government took these actions beginning in 1950 under the Briggs Plan in an effort to cut off supplies – mainly food, money and military provisions – to the MCP and MNLA, who were largely based in the jungle. These New Villages, which were initially labelled as “resettlement areas”, were then sectioned off using barbed wire and perimeter fencing, and all movement in and out of the villages was strictly controlled. British planners incorporated a number of common buildings and communal sites across New Village spaces, including schools, community centres and garden plots. Although statistics on these resettlement efforts vary, the British forcibly relocated approximately 500,000 people into around 450 New Villages across British Malaya. The vast majority of those resettled in New Villages were ethnic Chinese “squatters” who, until the Malayan Emergency, had been living throughout the Malay interior. Although statistics related to resettlement sites exists in a variety of published and archival sources, the most comprehensive list of New Villages is found in W. C. S. Corry’s 1954 study, A General Survey of New Villages. This list provided the data source for the New Villages detailed in this digital map. It should be noted that while most layers within the digital map have limited statistical information, New Villages are an exception. This is because the data for New Villages is far more robust than for other spatial categories within the map. Because of this, rather than simply providing the name and source information for each site, the clickable data box for each New Village contains information about the place name, approximate population, type of local government, and “category” of construction. While most of this data is self-explanatory, it should be noted that the “category” designation for each New Village represents the following: (A) refers to New Villages that were entirely new in their creation; (B) refers to New Villages built around smaller old villages that were then absorbed into the New Village; and (C) refers to New Villages that were suburbs or appendages to already existing towns or large villages. The definitions for these categories was found in Arkib Negara Malaysia, ANM, 1979/0006541, Statistical Information Concerning New Villages. 3. Regrouped Malay Kampongs One spatial designation rarely discussed within the historiographical literature on the Malayan Emergency is the Regrouped Malay Kampong. According to Paul Markandan, whose 1954 book, The Problem of New Villages in Malaya, represents one of the few secondary sources on this topic, the regrouping of Malay kampongs (or villages) began across the colony after 1952 in an effort to resettle Malay rural dwellers closer to main roads and police protection. There were many differences between these regrouping spaces and New Villages. First, Regrouped Malay Kampongs primarily consisted of Malay people, rather than those in the Chinese community. Second, the regrouping of Malay people occurred voluntarily instead of forcibly, and many Malay people who resettled were compensated for doing so. Third, and perhaps most importantly, these spaces were not subject to spatial control in the same ways in which New Villages were. In fact, instead of barbed wire fencing, perimeter lighting and the construction of recreation and educational centres, Regrouped Malay Kampongs contained few if any of these attributes, and local Malay villagers often had to finance the building of their own dwellings and communal institutions. Security for these villages was provided by the colonial Home Guard. Although statistics about Regrouped Malay Kampongs are limited and colonial administrators did not record their numbers in every state, the data for regrouping areas included in the digital map were found in the Arkib Negara Malaysia, ANM, 1979/0006541, Statistical Information Concerning New Villages. Data is provided for the states of Johore, Kelantan, and Pahang. 4. Labour Regroupments Another spatial category novel to the Malayan Emergency that receives little attention in the scholarly literature is the Labour Regroupment. Labour regrouping occurred at large rubber plantations and mining sites, most of which were owned by Western companies. The British colonial government considered labour regrouping necessary because, at the onset of the Emergency, many workers at these extractive and agricultural sites – whether Chinese, Malay or South Asian – lived in rural areas outside the boundaries of the company lease. Labour regrouping meant that companies were required to resettle their workers within the grounds of their estate to prevent them from being attacked by communist insurgents or, conversely, to prevent them from aiding the MCP and MNLA. Labour regrouping, however, was controversial, especially within the commercial community. Because regrouping forced firms to construct new living quarters and other amenities for their workers, many companies appealed to the colonial government to help finance such measures, which the British administration was reluctant to do. Nevertheless, labour regrouping occurred on a large scale throughout the colony. Unfortunately, the only statistics that we’ve discovered for such measures exist for the state of Pahang. This data, which is made available in the digital map, was found in the Arkib Negara Malaysia, ANM, 1979/0006541, Statistical Information Concerning New Villages. 5. Detention Camps The final spatial designation rendered in the digital map is Detention Camps. Although few in number and most often located in Malaya’s urban centres, Detention Camps operated as sites of incarceration, rehabilitation or “repatriation” throughout the colony. This category, it should be noted, is varied in its orientation. Although five of the spaces defined as “Detention Camps” were noted to exist in 1951 – one in Tanjong Bruas (Malacca), one in Majeedi (Johore), one in Pulau Jerejak (Penang), one in Ipoh (Perak) and one in Kluang (Johore) – there are two other sites listed in this category that are not strictly Detention Camps. This includes a “Transit Camp” in Port Swettenham and a “Rehabilitation Camp” in Taiping. The latter such facility was noted as housing Chinese people between the ages of 16 and 40 who were specially selected from the other Detention Camps to receive four to six months of vocational training. These inmates would later be re-released into the general population. In total, in December 1950, approximately 10,241 people were noted as being in detention. Data for these camps was found in The National Archives (London), Colonial Office files, CO 537/7270, Malaya: Detention, Repatriation and Resettlement of Chinese. Limitations of the Map The Spaces of the Malayan Emergency digital map provides an interactive tool to investigate and visualise the spatial features of the Malayan Emergency. Nevertheless, the map has a number of limitations that are worth noting. Rather than operating as a StoryMap or a map that reveals change over time, this map provides a visual snapshot of a particular moment in time during the Malayan Emergency. Roughly speaking, that moment is the year 1954. We chose to create a “static” map for a variety of reasons. First, the data and statistics related to the Emergency – particularly the names and locations of New Villages – were best reported and most readily available for the period around 1954. We thus chose this moment as being representative of a time when many of the Emergency’s unique spatial features were all in place territorially – for example, a moment when most New Villages and Regrouping Areas had already been built - but prior to a time when some other significant spatial categories – mainly Black Areas – still existed on a map. In other words, while prior to around 1952, many New Villages and Regrouping Areas had yet to exist in the colony and are therefore unable to be mapped, after around 1955, many Black Areas in Malaya had turned into White Areas. These realities also make the creation of a StoryMap difficult. While the strength of a StoryMap is in its focus on temporality, the data and statistics that are available in the archival record about these spatial features – with the possible exception of New Villages – is largely incomplete. While there is therefore much value in showing how British administrators created New Villages in the colony over time, it would be nearly impossible to do so while also including other spatial categories created during the Emergency, including Regrouped Malay Kampongs and Labour Regroupments. In addition, because the exact cartographic contours of White and Black Areas shifted rapidly over the Emergency period, the data available in the archival record would make it difficult to accurately track these variations over time. Even still, the use of a “static” map creates the appearance that the geography of the Emergency was “fixed” in its spatiality, which most certainly was not the case. This map merely represents an approximation of the spatial transformation that occurred in Malaya during the Emergency period. In other words, the map should not be considered a final statement on what the Emergency “looked like” during the 1940s and 1950s, but rather a visual tool designed to help scholars and the public better understand the scale of the spatial transformation that occurred during the conflict. The other major limitation of this map is related to data. While in some cases – such as for New Villages – statistics and information about different sites of occupation is readily available, that is not the case for all spatial designations referenced in the digital map. Statistics for Regrouped Malay Kampongs and Labour Regroupments, for example, were not always reported by British officials in the colony, and the available information depends heavily on how particular state administrators – i.e. officials in Johore, Pahang, or Perak – listed particular sites. This latter point on reporting data is important. Although a certain site may have been listed as a New Village in one source, for instance, that same site may be listed as a different spatial category elsewhere in the archive. In such cases, we relied on published sources – particularly Corry’s A General Survey of New Villages – to provide a more final assessment of how a site should appear in the digital map. Nonetheless, it should be noted that data points in the digital map are fluid in their orientation, and that British officials and members of the local community may have defined that site differently than what exists in the archival record. Similarly related to issues about data, there are questions involving the location of certain place names within the map. While some New Villages, for example, remained inhabited and even grew in population and territory over the post-colonial period, others – particularly those in more rural spaces – were later abandoned. Some others changed their names. This means that while some sites are easy to geolocate (and, it should be noted, this represents the vast majority of these spaces), others are much more difficult to find. In some cases, when a place name may have gone out of favour but road names and commercial enterprises happened to retain the earlier place name, we used guesswork to estimate the location of a particular space. However, it should be noted that not all locations are in the precise place where they may have existed originally. Finally, we chose not to include photographs of specific sites that are listed in the map. This is because although there are a number of excellent online digital databases that include photography from the Emergency period, very little of that material is catalogued as being from a particular location. In other words, there are many photographs of “New Villages” in the archival record, but few that record the actual place name of each New Village site. Because of this, and because visual materials could only be found for a tiny fraction of the sites included in the digital map (less than 2 per cent of the locations featured in the map), we decided against including photographic representations in our database.

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The Daminhui: A propaganda agency in occupied China

The Daminhui (lit., "Great People's Association") was organised by the Japanese special service in Shanghai in 1938,[1] but was officially directed by the veteran Kuomintang member Wen Zongyao in Japanese-occupied east and central China.[2] It has been described as the "flagship enterprise of the Reformed Government [of the ROC]."[3] The Daminhui was responsible for a variety of propaganda work, and learnt its skills directly from propaganda organisations in north China, especially the Xinminhui. Within the Daminhui's Propaganda Department worked Chinese graphic artists, journalists, dramatists, and activists. The Daminhui made a particular name for itself in mobilizing local communities for pro-occupation celebrations.[4] Much of the propaganda work undertaken by the Daminhui (and reproduced in its house pictorials like New China) looked remarkably similar to the "salvationist" (jiuguo) propaganda that had been developed by the Chinese resistance in Wuhan in 1938.[5] This was because a number of the Daminhui's affiliated agencies were specifically designed to emulate what the Japanese saw as effective methods of persuasion developed by the Chinese resistance early in the war. Nonetheless, the Daminhui developed its own "brand." It operated under a logo comprised of a five-pointed star and a crescent moon. The influence of the Daminhui would continue to be felt in occupied east China through until 1945, as many of its members joined the ranks of Wang Jingwei's government at its formation in 1940.     [1] T'ien-wei Wu, "Contending political forces during the War of Resistance," in China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937-1945, eds., James C. Hsiung and Steven I. Levine (Armonk, NY: East Gate, 1992) , 66–67. [2] Wen Zongyao, "Daminhui Wen huizhang gao minzhong shu" [Letter from Director Wen of the Daminhui to the people], Xin Zhongguo 2, no. 11–12 (December 1939): 2–3. [3] Timothy Brook, "Occupation state building," in China at War: Regions of China, 1937–1945, eds. Stephen R. MacKinnon, Diana Lary and Ezra F. Vogel (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007), 35. [4] Liu Jie, "Kangzhan chuqi Huadong lunxianqu qin-Ri qunti yanjiu: yi Daminhui Zhenjiang lianhe zhibu wei zhongxin de tantao" [A study of pro-Japanese groups in occupied areas of east China in the early stages of the War of Resistance: A discussion of the Daminhui's branch office in Zhenjiang], Zhongyang yanjiuyuan jindaishi yanjiusuo jikan 98 (2017): 89–114. [5] As detailed in Stephen R. MacKinnon, War, Refugees, and the Making of Modern China: Wuhan, 1938 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2008).

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“Angel of Peace (heping tianshi )”:
Icon of Occupation in Wartime China

In pre-WWII Shanghai, one of the most recognisable landmarks on the city's Bund had been Henry Fehr's art nouveau Allied War Memorial, first erected in 1924, and featuring at its top a statue of a winged Victory. According to Robert Bickers, the monument was so dominant a sight in Shanghai that it made its way into the city's culture. It even made an appearance in the 1937 film Street Angel (Malu Tianshi), directed by Yuan Muzhi.[1] This may help explain why the statue came to be referred to colloquially in the city either as the "Angel of Peace" (heping tianshi) or the "Victory Angel" (shengli tianshi) during the 1930s. As Paul Bevan has shown, the figure was also utilised in social and political cartoons by the likes of Zhang Guangyu in this same period.[2]   Following the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, however, Fehr's Victory was given a new significance for a variety of Japanese client states. Even prior to the establishment of the Reorganised National Government (RNG) in 1940, for example, the figure was worked into occupation propaganda in eastern China, with the notion of an "angel of peace" resonating with both Japanese client states set up in 1938 which promoted a negotiated peace with Japan, and with Wang Jingwei's "Peace Movement" (Heping yundong) after 1939. Fehr's figure was appropriated in the same year as into the cover design for one of the main vehicles for the Peace Movement in Shanghai, the periodical Gengsheng (Rebirth). Under the RNG, Fehr's figure was transformed into an "goddess of peace" (heping nüshen), and was regularly featured in depictions of the Shanghai streetscape in RNG-sponsored graphic art. Indeed, the RNG "angel of peace" motif into the visual landscape of the RNG well beyond Shanghai, and wherever references to anthropomorphised peace were useful. In some instances, children dressed up as the "angel of peace" when publicly commemorating important dates on the RNG calendar. Elsewhere, Fehr's monument was re-imagined in rural Chinese landscapes by RNG artists as a harbinger of RNG notions of peace. Ironically, with the "return" of the foreign concessions to RNG rule in 1943, the Japanese ordered that symbols of Western imperialism be removed from Shanghai's streets. This, of course, included Fehr's Allied War Monument (with Victory herself being removed, but her plinth left intact). The "angel of peace" thus provides us with an insight not simply into the eclectic origins of many of the symbols adopted by the RNG, and the creative ways in which this regime appropriated pre-war symbols of peace into a wartime cultures of occupation. It also illustrates the limits of RNG autonomy when it came to constructing visual cultures under foreign domination.     [1] Robert Bickers, "Moving Stories: Memorialisation and its Legacies in Treaty Port China", in Max Jones, et al (eds), Decolonising Imperial Heroes: Cultural Legacies of the British and French Empires (London: Routledge, 2016). [2] Paul Bevan, A Modern Miscellany: Shanghai Cartoon Artists, Shao Xunmei’s Circle and the Travels of Jack Chen, 1926-1938 (Boston: Brill, 2016), 267.

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